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www.33kcd.com_www.33kcd.com-【投注方法】

文章来源:SEO    发布时间:2019-11-13 22:27:04  【字号:      】

www.33kcd.com_www.33kcd.com-【投注方法】Thereisnosecretformulaforasuccessfulcareerindrugdiscovery,butcreativityandthewillingnesstoadapttoarapidly-changingscientificlandscapeplaysabigrole.ForDr.DariaHazuda,VicePresidentofInfectiousDiseasesDiscovery,MSDResearchLaboratories,themostvaluabletraitistenacity,asmostresearchersareconsideredfortunateiftheycreatejustonenewmoleculethatmakesitthroughthecomplexprocessittakestobecomeaproduct.“WhenIjoinedMSDover20yearsago,itwasabigeye-openertoseethemagnitudeoftheeffortthatgoesintodrugdiscoveryanddevelopment,”shenotes.“Therearesomanydifferentdisciplinesrequiredtomovesomethingfromanideaindiscoveryintodevelopment,andthenthereissomucheffortrequiredalongthepathtoapproval.”Daria’sresearchininfectiousdiseasebiologyhasledtothediscoveryanddevelopmentofmultiplenovelmedicinestotreatHIVandHepatitisC.Butdon’tcallhersuccessinthisfieldlucky.“Luckmaybeafactor,sure,butmoreimportantly,youmustalsolearnfromthethingsthatdon’twork,”shesaysasshereflectsonherexperience.“Ifyouareworkingonaprogram,inevitablyalotofthethingsyoutrydon’tsucceed.Insteadofchalkingthoseuptofailure,usethoselessonsandapplythemtothenextiterationofwhatyouaretryingtodo.It’samissedopportunityifyoudon’tlearnfromwhatdoesn’twork.”Daria’sadvice:“Maintainfocusandhaveflexibilitytoadaptyourresearchasscienceanddataunfolds.”AdaptingMSD’sEarlyDiscoveryResearchWithDaria’sextensiveexperienceinthelabs(andmorethan180publicationsfocusedprimarilyonantiviralresearchinthefieldsofHIVandHepatitisC),DariawillnowapplyherexpertiseasChiefScientificOfficerofthenewMSDResearchLaboratoriesCambridgeexploratorysciencecenterinCambridge,Mass.Thecenterwillfocusontheearlieststagesofdiscoveryresearchtobetterunderstandtheunderlyingbiologyofhumandisease.“OurnewCambridgelabspresentauniqueopportunitytotapintothecutting-edgesciencecomingoutofthearea’srichbiomedicalresearch,”shesaysofthenewexploratorysciencecenter.Designedasanentrepreneurialandintimateenvironmentofroughly40scientists,thelabsdonotfocusontacklingasetrosterofdiseases.Here,theemphasiswillbeonexploringthemostpromisingareasofemergingdiseasebiology,includinghost-pathogenbiologyandtheroleofthemicrobiomeindisease,andgainingnewinsightstoinformMSD’songoingdrugdiscovery.”MSD’snewlabsarelocatedinCambridge’sKendallSquareneighborhood,hometooneofthelargestconcentrationsofbiotechandacademiaintheU.S.Inaddition,thespaceissharedwithMSD’sEastCoastBusinessDevelopmentteamtosupportthelab’sfocusonearlybiologyandtechnologycollaborationswithlocalacademicandbiotechgroups.ExploringemergingsciencetoinformdrugdiscoveryForDaria,expandingourearlyresearchcapabilitiesisanexcitingandnecessaryshiftforMSD,andademonstrationofourcommitmenttobeing“researchdriven.”Inalandscapewheremanylargebiopharmaceuticalcompaniesareexitingthediscoveryspace,sheseesthesenewcapabilitiesasanecessaryandvitaladditionforthecompany.“There’sareasonforthe‘and’inResearchandDevelopment,”Darianotes.“Youneedtohaveboth;youneedtohavepeopleexploringnewareasofbiologytouncovernewopportunitiestointerrogateadisease,aswellasthosewhorecognizewhatagoodmoleculelookslikeinordertomakeandsuccessfullydeliveramedicinetothemarket.”Lookingahead,sheadds,“What’smostexcitingtomeishavingtheflexibilitytoexplorecompletelynewareasofdiseasebiology,knowingthatwehaveMSD’sprovendiscoveryanddevelopmentcapabilitiesathandtodriveourdiscoveriesandinventionsforward.”Acommitmenttoinventingscientificsolutionstounmetmedicalchallenges…acommitmenttopatientsbeforeprofits…and,adeepsenseofcorporateobligationtothepublicgood.ThesearetheprinciplesGeorgeW.Merckestablishedforthecompanymanyyearsago,andtheycontinuetoguideourcompanyandleaderstoday.AMajorMilestoneCreatingMSD’sfirstcompleteresearchanddevelopmentlaboratory--onethatwassooutstandingthatitcould“talkonequaltermswiththeuniversitiesandresearchinstitutes”--wasamilestone…andnotjustforthecompanyandGeorgeMerck,whoinitiatedandledtheeffortasMSD’spresident.Itusheredinanewerainindustrialresearch--onethatfosteredcollaborationbetweenindustry,academiaandmedicalinstitutions.ItwasamilestoneforresearchersbothinsideandoutsideofMSD,and,mostimportantly,forthepatients.AnInterdisciplinaryResearchApproach–TheMSDCampusGeorgeMerckmadethedecisiontoinvestinthisworld-classR&Dfacilityin1929,inspiteofthefactthatthecountrywasenteringtheGreatDepression.Heenvisionedaplacewhere“sciencewillbeadvanced,knowledgeincreasedandhumanlifewillwinagreatfreedomfromsufferinganddisease.”Atthededicationceremonyin1933inRahway,N.J.,hefirstlaidoutthecompanymissiontodevelopscientificbreakthroughstobenefithumanity,andthencarefullybuilttheteamofscientistsandstrategyofscientificinnovationthatdefinesthecompany.Knownas“TheMSDCampus”becauseofitsacademicatmosphereandappearance,thenewR&Dfacilityofferedscientists“thegreatestpossiblelatitudeandscopeinpursuingtheirinvestigations,theutmostfreedomtofollowpromisingscientificresultsnomatterhowunrelatedtowhatonewouldcallpracticalterms”andthefreedomtopublish.And,itreflectedasignificantshiftintherelationshipbetweenbusinessanduniversitiesthathadbeenunwillingtoendangertheirautonomybyworkingwithindustry.AccordingtoGeorgeMerck,“thenewlaboratoriessignifiedourtransitionfromthemoreorlessindividual,isolatedscientificefforttomodernteamwork.MSD’scollaborationwithacademicandmedicalinstitutionsflourishedandyieldedimportantpioneeringdiscoveriesatthattime,amongthem:vitamins,antibioticsandhormones.ShiftfromchemicalmanufacturertopharmaceuticalcompanyGeorgeMerckguidedthecompanythroughtwodecisivemergers.Thefirst,in1927,wasthemergerofPowers-Weightman-Rosengartenthatmorethandoubledthecompany’ssales.Thesecond,the1953mergerwithSharp&Dohme,resultedinafullyintegrated,multi-nationalproduceranddistributorofpharmaceuticalsaswellasspecialtychemicals.AfocusonpatientsandcorporateresponsibilityGeorgeMerckindoctrinatedthecompany–andthroughit,eventually,theindustry–withtheconceptthatthepublicgoodmustbetakenintoaccountasafactorinitspoliciesandprojects.Hesaid:Itisuptousinresearchwork,inindustries,andincollegesandotherinstitutions,tohelpkeeptheprobleminthisfocus.Wecannotstepasideandsaythatwehaveachievedourgoalbyinventinganewdrugoranewwaybywhichtotreatpresentlyincurablediseases,anewwaytohelpthosewhosufferfrommalnutrition,orthecreationofidealbalanceddietsonaworldwidescale.Wecannotresttillthewayhasbeenfound,withourhelp,tobringourfinestachievementtoeveryone.ThisresponsibilitywasevidentwhenGeorgeMerckturnedoverMSDspatentrightstothebreakthroughantibioticfortuberculosisdiscoveredbyDr.SelmanWaksmanatRutgersUniversitywithsupportfromMSD,sothatthispublic-healthprocesscouldbelicensedtomultiplemanufacturersforthebenefitofthemanypeoplesufferinganddyingfromthisdisease.GuidingourfutureEncouragedbyhisfathertojointheshopin1915,GeorgeMerckrevolutionizedpharmaceuticalresearchandlaunchedsomeofthemostexcitinginnovationsinMSDshistory.Hewasavisionarywhosevaluesandprinciplesstillguidethiscompanymorethan90yearslater.KenFrazier,MSDchairmanandCEO,recentlynoted,OurcompanysenduringpurposewascapturedbyGeorgeW.Merck,whosaidmedicineisforthepeople,notfortheprofits.It'simportantforusnotonlytodiscoveranddevelopinnovativemedicines,butalsotomakesurethatpeoplehaveaccesstothosemedicines.Onaquesttocure,wecontinuetoholdGeorgeW.Mercksvaluestothehigheststandard.Valuesofthepastguideourvisionforahealthierandmorehopefulfuture.Thereisnosecretformulaforasuccessfulcareerindrugdiscovery,butcreativityandthewillingnesstoadapttoarapidly-changingscientificlandscapeplaysabigrole.ForDr.DariaHazuda,VicePresidentofInfectiousDiseasesDiscovery,MSDResearchLaboratories,themostvaluabletraitistenacity,asmostresearchersareconsideredfortunateiftheycreatejustonenewmoleculethatmakesitthroughthecomplexprocessittakestobecomeaproduct.“WhenIjoinedMSDover20yearsago,itwasabigeye-openertoseethemagnitudeoftheeffortthatgoesintodrugdiscoveryanddevelopment,”shenotes.“Therearesomanydifferentdisciplinesrequiredtomovesomethingfromanideaindiscoveryintodevelopment,andthenthereissomucheffortrequiredalongthepathtoapproval.”Daria’sresearchininfectiousdiseasebiologyhasledtothediscoveryanddevelopmentofmultiplenovelmedicinestotreatHIVandHepatitisC.Butdon’tcallhersuccessinthisfieldlucky.“Luckmaybeafactor,sure,butmoreimportantly,youmustalsolearnfromthethingsthatdon’twork,”shesaysasshereflectsonherexperience.“Ifyouareworkingonaprogram,inevitablyalotofthethingsyoutrydon’tsucceed.Insteadofchalkingthoseuptofailure,usethoselessonsandapplythemtothenextiterationofwhatyouaretryingtodo.It’samissedopportunityifyoudon’tlearnfromwhatdoesn’twork.”Daria’sadvice:“Maintainfocusandhaveflexibilitytoadaptyourresearchasscienceanddataunfolds.”AdaptingMSD’sEarlyDiscoveryResearchWithDaria’sextensiveexperienceinthelabs(andmorethan180publicationsfocusedprimarilyonantiviralresearchinthefieldsofHIVandHepatitisC),DariawillnowapplyherexpertiseasChiefScientificOfficerofthenewMSDResearchLaboratoriesCambridgeexploratorysciencecenterinCambridge,Mass.Thecenterwillfocusontheearlieststagesofdiscoveryresearchtobetterunderstandtheunderlyingbiologyofhumandisease.“OurnewCambridgelabspresentauniqueopportunitytotapintothecutting-edgesciencecomingoutofthearea’srichbiomedicalresearch,”shesaysofthenewexploratorysciencecenter.Designedasanentrepreneurialandintimateenvironmentofroughly40scientists,thelabsdonotfocusontacklingasetrosterofdiseases.Here,theemphasiswillbeonexploringthemostpromisingareasofemergingdiseasebiology,includinghost-pathogenbiologyandtheroleofthemicrobiomeindisease,andgainingnewinsightstoinformMSD’songoingdrugdiscovery.”MSD’snewlabsarelocatedinCambridge’sKendallSquareneighborhood,hometooneofthelargestconcentrationsofbiotechandacademiaintheU.S.Inaddition,thespaceissharedwithMSD’sEastCoastBusinessDevelopmentteamtosupportthelab’sfocusonearlybiologyandtechnologycollaborationswithlocalacademicandbiotechgroups.ExploringemergingsciencetoinformdrugdiscoveryForDaria,expandingourearlyresearchcapabilitiesisanexcitingandnecessaryshiftforMSD,andademonstrationofourcommitmenttobeing“researchdriven.”Inalandscapewheremanylargebiopharmaceuticalcompaniesareexitingthediscoveryspace,sheseesthesenewcapabilitiesasanecessaryandvitaladditionforthecompany.“There’sareasonforthe‘and’inResearchandDevelopment,”Darianotes.“Youneedtohaveboth;youneedtohavepeopleexploringnewareasofbiologytouncovernewopportunitiestointerrogateadisease,aswellasthosewhorecognizewhatagoodmoleculelookslikeinordertomakeandsuccessfullydeliveramedicinetothemarket.”Lookingahead,sheadds,“What’smostexcitingtomeishavingtheflexibilitytoexplorecompletelynewareasofdiseasebiology,knowingthatwehaveMSD’sprovendiscoveryanddevelopmentcapabilitiesathandtodriveourdiscoveriesandinventionsforward.”

AsdirectorofAnalyticalMethodDevelopmentfortheBiologicsBioProcessDevelopmentgroup,DaisyRichardsonisthefirsttoadmitherroleisonethat’sabitmorebehind-the-scenes.“Myparents,neitherofwhomarescientists,askmeallthetimewhatIdo,”shesayswithalaugh.“Youneverreallythinkaboutdrugqualityandsafety.Peoplealwaysassumethereissomecontroloverit,buttheydon’trealizethecomplexitybehindit.Butthere’sthisincredibleintricacybehindthemoleculesinthevialorsyringeofmedicinetheyarereceiving.Itneedstobesafeandconsistent.”DaisyoverseesateamwhichcreatesteststomonitorthequalityofthemedicinesthatMSDmanufactures.“It’sabigresponsibility,”shenotes.“Sometimesthesetestsmighthavealifetimeof20or30years.SoyouneedtohaveavisiontomakesureMSDcontinuestomakeproductswhichremainsafeandconsistentduringthattimespan.”BecomingapositiverolemodelforothersDaisystrivestobearolemodelforotherwomeninherdepartment,aswellasforhertwoyoungdaughters.“It’swonderfulhowmanystrong,femaleleadersthereareinmydepartment.AndIthinkthatspeaksalottoMSDandtheirinvestmenttowomeninscience,”shenotes.HavingsomanyfemalecolleaguesisabitofanoveltyfortheMississippinative,whosaystherewereveryfewwomeninthesciencedisciplinesasshewasprogressingthroughschool.“Iwastheonlygirlinmyphysicsclassincollege,andonceIwastoldbymyprofessor,‘Youcantakethenotesbecauseyouarethewomanandyoucanbethesecretary.’Therejustweren’talotoffemalerolemodels.So,tome,beingarolemodelissomethingthatdrivesme.”WomencanbeleadersinscienceThatresponsibilitystartsathome.“Mytwogirlsaremybiggestsourcesofmotivationtocometoworkeveryday,”shesays.“It’sreallyimportantformetosetagoodexample,andtoshowmykidsthatwomencanbeinscience.Womencanbeleadersinscience,andtheycanbetechnicallystrong,andtheycansucceed.”Fornow,Daisy’soldestdaughterseemstobefollowinginhermom’sfootsteps.“Myoldestdaughter,whoisfour,isabletosignupfor‘elective’classesatherdaycare.Andshealwayssignsupforthescienceclass,”recallsDaisy.“Theotherdayshecamehome,ranuptomeandsaid,‘Mommy!Lookatme!I’mascientist!’Andshewassohappy.”Acommitmenttoinventingscientificsolutionstounmetmedicalchallenges…acommitmenttopatientsbeforeprofits…and,adeepsenseofcorporateobligationtothepublicgood.ThesearetheprinciplesGeorgeW.Merckestablishedforthecompanymanyyearsago,andtheycontinuetoguideourcompanyandleaderstoday.AMajorMilestoneCreatingMSD’sfirstcompleteresearchanddevelopmentlaboratory--onethatwassooutstandingthatitcould“talkonequaltermswiththeuniversitiesandresearchinstitutes”--wasamilestone…andnotjustforthecompanyandGeorgeMerck,whoinitiatedandledtheeffortasMSD’spresident.Itusheredinanewerainindustrialresearch--onethatfosteredcollaborationbetweenindustry,academiaandmedicalinstitutions.ItwasamilestoneforresearchersbothinsideandoutsideofMSD,and,mostimportantly,forthepatients.AnInterdisciplinaryResearchApproach–TheMSDCampusGeorgeMerckmadethedecisiontoinvestinthisworld-classR&Dfacilityin1929,inspiteofthefactthatthecountrywasenteringtheGreatDepression.Heenvisionedaplacewhere“sciencewillbeadvanced,knowledgeincreasedandhumanlifewillwinagreatfreedomfromsufferinganddisease.”Atthededicationceremonyin1933inRahway,N.J.,hefirstlaidoutthecompanymissiontodevelopscientificbreakthroughstobenefithumanity,andthencarefullybuilttheteamofscientistsandstrategyofscientificinnovationthatdefinesthecompany.Knownas“TheMSDCampus”becauseofitsacademicatmosphereandappearance,thenewR&Dfacilityofferedscientists“thegreatestpossiblelatitudeandscopeinpursuingtheirinvestigations,theutmostfreedomtofollowpromisingscientificresultsnomatterhowunrelatedtowhatonewouldcallpracticalterms”andthefreedomtopublish.And,itreflectedasignificantshiftintherelationshipbetweenbusinessanduniversitiesthathadbeenunwillingtoendangertheirautonomybyworkingwithindustry.AccordingtoGeorgeMerck,“thenewlaboratoriessignifiedourtransitionfromthemoreorlessindividual,isolatedscientificefforttomodernteamwork.MSD’scollaborationwithacademicandmedicalinstitutionsflourishedandyieldedimportantpioneeringdiscoveriesatthattime,amongthem:vitamins,antibioticsandhormones.ShiftfromchemicalmanufacturertopharmaceuticalcompanyGeorgeMerckguidedthecompanythroughtwodecisivemergers.Thefirst,in1927,wasthemergerofPowers-Weightman-Rosengartenthatmorethandoubledthecompany’ssales.Thesecond,the1953mergerwithSharp&Dohme,resultedinafullyintegrated,multi-nationalproduceranddistributorofpharmaceuticalsaswellasspecialtychemicals.AfocusonpatientsandcorporateresponsibilityGeorgeMerckindoctrinatedthecompany–andthroughit,eventually,theindustry–withtheconceptthatthepublicgoodmustbetakenintoaccountasafactorinitspoliciesandprojects.Hesaid:Itisuptousinresearchwork,inindustries,andincollegesandotherinstitutions,tohelpkeeptheprobleminthisfocus.Wecannotstepasideandsaythatwehaveachievedourgoalbyinventinganewdrugoranewwaybywhichtotreatpresentlyincurablediseases,anewwaytohelpthosewhosufferfrommalnutrition,orthecreationofidealbalanceddietsonaworldwidescale.Wecannotresttillthewayhasbeenfound,withourhelp,tobringourfinestachievementtoeveryone.ThisresponsibilitywasevidentwhenGeorgeMerckturnedoverMSDspatentrightstothebreakthroughantibioticfortuberculosisdiscoveredbyDr.SelmanWaksmanatRutgersUniversitywithsupportfromMSD,sothatthispublic-healthprocesscouldbelicensedtomultiplemanufacturersforthebenefitofthemanypeoplesufferinganddyingfromthisdisease.GuidingourfutureEncouragedbyhisfathertojointheshopin1915,GeorgeMerckrevolutionizedpharmaceuticalresearchandlaunchedsomeofthemostexcitinginnovationsinMSDshistory.Hewasavisionarywhosevaluesandprinciplesstillguidethiscompanymorethan90yearslater.KenFrazier,MSDchairmanandCEO,recentlynoted,OurcompanysenduringpurposewascapturedbyGeorgeW.Merck,whosaidmedicineisforthepeople,notfortheprofits.It'simportantforusnotonlytodiscoveranddevelopinnovativemedicines,butalsotomakesurethatpeoplehaveaccesstothosemedicines.Onaquesttocure,wecontinuetoholdGeorgeW.Mercksvaluestothehigheststandard.Valuesofthepastguideourvisionforahealthierandmorehopefulfuture.“OnEarth,youcancontroleveryvariable–otherthangravity.”ThislittlenuggetofintergalacticwisdomaboutwhyconductingmedicalresearchaboardtheISSissoexcitingisfromTaraRuttley,anassociateprogramscientistfortheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS),duringarecenteventatMSD.Assheexplained,it’smainlybecausenoonereallyknowswhatwillhappeninzerogravity—ourusuallawsofphysicsjustdon’tapplyinouterspace.Zerogravityresearchallowsscientistsandresearcherstostudytheunderlyingdynamicsofwhythingsworkthewaytheydo.MSDscientistPaulReichertknowsthisfirsthand.He’sbeenworkingwithNASAandtheCenterfortheAdvancementofScienceinSpace(CASIS)toconducthisownsetofzerogravityexperimentsforMSDaboardtheISSsince1993.Paul,whohascarriedout13experiments,includingtwoonboardtheISS,hasonemainspecialty:growingcrystalsinspace.Improvingourdrugdiscovery,deliveryandmanufacturingprocessesAbouttenyearsago,Pauldiscoveredconditionsthatcrystallizeaproteincalled“alphainterferon.”We’lllethimexplain:“Proteinsgrowninspacebehavedifferentlybecausetheyarenotimpactedbytheforceofgravity,sotheytendtogrowbiggerandpurer,allowingustogainnewinsightsintotheir3-Dstructures,”henotes.“EachtimeI’vesentanexperimenttospace,I’velearnedhowtogrowcrystalsbetterhereonEarth.”PracticalapplicationsonEarthBymakingandstudyingthesecrystals,Paulandhisteamcanfigureoutwaystoimprovethestorageofotherwisestructurally-fragilemedicinesaswellashowtodevisebettermethodsofdrugdelivery.“Currently,alotofmedicinesaredeliveredviaanIVinahospitalsetting,usuallyoverseveralhours,”heexplains.WhatPaulandhisteamaretryingtofigureoutishowtotransformthesemedicinesintosomethingthatcanbegivenasasingle,quickinjectioninadoctor’soffice—somethingsomeonecanreceiveontheirlunchbreak,whereasbeforetheywouldhavetouseawholedayinordertogetthemedicinetheyneedtotake.“Akidinacandyshop”So,whatdoesthefutureholdforthisfrontier-bustingscientistHopefully,moreexperimentsandevenmorebreakthroughs.“MSDallowsme,everydayIcometowork,topushthefrontiersofscience,”henotes.“I’mlikeakidinacandyshophere.”Acandyshopthatjusthappenstosometimesbeinouterspace.“OnEarth,youcancontroleveryvariable–otherthangravity.”ThislittlenuggetofintergalacticwisdomaboutwhyconductingmedicalresearchaboardtheISSissoexcitingisfromTaraRuttley,anassociateprogramscientistfortheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS),duringarecenteventatMSD.Assheexplained,it’smainlybecausenoonereallyknowswhatwillhappeninzerogravity—ourusuallawsofphysicsjustdon’tapplyinouterspace.Zerogravityresearchallowsscientistsandresearcherstostudytheunderlyingdynamicsofwhythingsworkthewaytheydo.MSDscientistPaulReichertknowsthisfirsthand.He’sbeenworkingwithNASAandtheCenterfortheAdvancementofScienceinSpace(CASIS)toconducthisownsetofzerogravityexperimentsforMSDaboardtheISSsince1993.Paul,whohascarriedout13experiments,includingtwoonboardtheISS,hasonemainspecialty:growingcrystalsinspace.Improvingourdrugdiscovery,deliveryandmanufacturingprocessesAbouttenyearsago,Pauldiscoveredconditionsthatcrystallizeaproteincalled“alphainterferon.”We’lllethimexplain:“Proteinsgrowninspacebehavedifferentlybecausetheyarenotimpactedbytheforceofgravity,sotheytendtogrowbiggerandpurer,allowingustogainnewinsightsintotheir3-Dstructures,”henotes.“EachtimeI’vesentanexperimenttospace,I’velearnedhowtogrowcrystalsbetterhereonEarth.”PracticalapplicationsonEarthBymakingandstudyingthesecrystals,Paulandhisteamcanfigureoutwaystoimprovethestorageofotherwisestructurally-fragilemedicinesaswellashowtodevisebettermethodsofdrugdelivery.“Currently,alotofmedicinesaredeliveredviaanIVinahospitalsetting,usuallyoverseveralhours,”heexplains.WhatPaulandhisteamaretryingtofigureoutishowtotransformthesemedicinesintosomethingthatcanbegivenasasingle,quickinjectioninadoctor’soffice—somethingsomeonecanreceiveontheirlunchbreak,whereasbeforetheywouldhavetouseawholedayinordertogetthemedicinetheyneedtotake.“Akidinacandyshop”So,whatdoesthefutureholdforthisfrontier-bustingscientistHopefully,moreexperimentsandevenmorebreakthroughs.“MSDallowsme,everydayIcometowork,topushthefrontiersofscience,”henotes.“I’mlikeakidinacandyshophere.”Acandyshopthatjusthappenstosometimesbeinouterspace.

Acommitmenttoinventingscientificsolutionstounmetmedicalchallenges…acommitmenttopatientsbeforeprofits…and,adeepsenseofcorporateobligationtothepublicgood.ThesearetheprinciplesGeorgeW.Merckestablishedforthecompanymanyyearsago,andtheycontinuetoguideourcompanyandleaderstoday.AMajorMilestoneCreatingMSD’sfirstcompleteresearchanddevelopmentlaboratory--onethatwassooutstandingthatitcould“talkonequaltermswiththeuniversitiesandresearchinstitutes”--wasamilestone…andnotjustforthecompanyandGeorgeMerck,whoinitiatedandledtheeffortasMSD’spresident.Itusheredinanewerainindustrialresearch--onethatfosteredcollaborationbetweenindustry,academiaandmedicalinstitutions.ItwasamilestoneforresearchersbothinsideandoutsideofMSD,and,mostimportantly,forthepatients.AnInterdisciplinaryResearchApproach–TheMSDCampusGeorgeMerckmadethedecisiontoinvestinthisworld-classR&Dfacilityin1929,inspiteofthefactthatthecountrywasenteringtheGreatDepression.Heenvisionedaplacewhere“sciencewillbeadvanced,knowledgeincreasedandhumanlifewillwinagreatfreedomfromsufferinganddisease.”Atthededicationceremonyin1933inRahway,N.J.,hefirstlaidoutthecompanymissiontodevelopscientificbreakthroughstobenefithumanity,andthencarefullybuilttheteamofscientistsandstrategyofscientificinnovationthatdefinesthecompany.Knownas“TheMSDCampus”becauseofitsacademicatmosphereandappearance,thenewR&Dfacilityofferedscientists“thegreatestpossiblelatitudeandscopeinpursuingtheirinvestigations,theutmostfreedomtofollowpromisingscientificresultsnomatterhowunrelatedtowhatonewouldcallpracticalterms”andthefreedomtopublish.And,itreflectedasignificantshiftintherelationshipbetweenbusinessanduniversitiesthathadbeenunwillingtoendangertheirautonomybyworkingwithindustry.AccordingtoGeorgeMerck,“thenewlaboratoriessignifiedourtransitionfromthemoreorlessindividual,isolatedscientificefforttomodernteamwork.MSD’scollaborationwithacademicandmedicalinstitutionsflourishedandyieldedimportantpioneeringdiscoveriesatthattime,amongthem:vitamins,antibioticsandhormones.ShiftfromchemicalmanufacturertopharmaceuticalcompanyGeorgeMerckguidedthecompanythroughtwodecisivemergers.Thefirst,in1927,wasthemergerofPowers-Weightman-Rosengartenthatmorethandoubledthecompany’ssales.Thesecond,the1953mergerwithSharp&Dohme,resultedinafullyintegrated,multi-nationalproduceranddistributorofpharmaceuticalsaswellasspecialtychemicals.AfocusonpatientsandcorporateresponsibilityGeorgeMerckindoctrinatedthecompany–andthroughit,eventually,theindustry–withtheconceptthatthepublicgoodmustbetakenintoaccountasafactorinitspoliciesandprojects.Hesaid:Itisuptousinresearchwork,inindustries,andincollegesandotherinstitutions,tohelpkeeptheprobleminthisfocus.Wecannotstepasideandsaythatwehaveachievedourgoalbyinventinganewdrugoranewwaybywhichtotreatpresentlyincurablediseases,anewwaytohelpthosewhosufferfrommalnutrition,orthecreationofidealbalanceddietsonaworldwidescale.Wecannotresttillthewayhasbeenfound,withourhelp,tobringourfinestachievementtoeveryone.ThisresponsibilitywasevidentwhenGeorgeMerckturnedoverMSDspatentrightstothebreakthroughantibioticfortuberculosisdiscoveredbyDr.SelmanWaksmanatRutgersUniversitywithsupportfromMSD,sothatthispublic-healthprocesscouldbelicensedtomultiplemanufacturersforthebenefitofthemanypeoplesufferinganddyingfromthisdisease.GuidingourfutureEncouragedbyhisfathertojointheshopin1915,GeorgeMerckrevolutionizedpharmaceuticalresearchandlaunchedsomeofthemostexcitinginnovationsinMSDshistory.Hewasavisionarywhosevaluesandprinciplesstillguidethiscompanymorethan90yearslater.KenFrazier,MSDchairmanandCEO,recentlynoted,OurcompanysenduringpurposewascapturedbyGeorgeW.Merck,whosaidmedicineisforthepeople,notfortheprofits.It'simportantforusnotonlytodiscoveranddevelopinnovativemedicines,butalsotomakesurethatpeoplehaveaccesstothosemedicines.Onaquesttocure,wecontinuetoholdGeorgeW.Mercksvaluestothehigheststandard.Valuesofthepastguideourvisionforahealthierandmorehopefulfuture.“OnEarth,youcancontroleveryvariable–otherthangravity.”ThislittlenuggetofintergalacticwisdomaboutwhyconductingmedicalresearchaboardtheISSissoexcitingisfromTaraRuttley,anassociateprogramscientistfortheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS),duringarecenteventatMSD.Assheexplained,it’smainlybecausenoonereallyknowswhatwillhappeninzerogravity—ourusuallawsofphysicsjustdon’tapplyinouterspace.Zerogravityresearchallowsscientistsandresearcherstostudytheunderlyingdynamicsofwhythingsworkthewaytheydo.MSDscientistPaulReichertknowsthisfirsthand.He’sbeenworkingwithNASAandtheCenterfortheAdvancementofScienceinSpace(CASIS)toconducthisownsetofzerogravityexperimentsforMSDaboardtheISSsince1993.Paul,whohascarriedout13experiments,includingtwoonboardtheISS,hasonemainspecialty:growingcrystalsinspace.Improvingourdrugdiscovery,deliveryandmanufacturingprocessesAbouttenyearsago,Pauldiscoveredconditionsthatcrystallizeaproteincalled“alphainterferon.”We’lllethimexplain:“Proteinsgrowninspacebehavedifferentlybecausetheyarenotimpactedbytheforceofgravity,sotheytendtogrowbiggerandpurer,allowingustogainnewinsightsintotheir3-Dstructures,”henotes.“EachtimeI’vesentanexperimenttospace,I’velearnedhowtogrowcrystalsbetterhereonEarth.”PracticalapplicationsonEarthBymakingandstudyingthesecrystals,Paulandhisteamcanfigureoutwaystoimprovethestorageofotherwisestructurally-fragilemedicinesaswellashowtodevisebettermethodsofdrugdelivery.“Currently,alotofmedicinesaredeliveredviaanIVinahospitalsetting,usuallyoverseveralhours,”heexplains.WhatPaulandhisteamaretryingtofigureoutishowtotransformthesemedicinesintosomethingthatcanbegivenasasingle,quickinjectioninadoctor’soffice—somethingsomeonecanreceiveontheirlunchbreak,whereasbeforetheywouldhavetouseawholedayinordertogetthemedicinetheyneedtotake.“Akidinacandyshop”So,whatdoesthefutureholdforthisfrontier-bustingscientistHopefully,moreexperimentsandevenmorebreakthroughs.“MSDallowsme,everydayIcometowork,topushthefrontiersofscience,”henotes.“I’mlikeakidinacandyshophere.”Acandyshopthatjusthappenstosometimesbeinouterspace.AsdirectorofAnalyticalMethodDevelopmentfortheBiologicsBioProcessDevelopmentgroup,DaisyRichardsonisthefirsttoadmitherroleisonethat’sabitmorebehind-the-scenes.“Myparents,neitherofwhomarescientists,askmeallthetimewhatIdo,”shesayswithalaugh.“Youneverreallythinkaboutdrugqualityandsafety.Peoplealwaysassumethereissomecontroloverit,buttheydon’trealizethecomplexitybehindit.Butthere’sthisincredibleintricacybehindthemoleculesinthevialorsyringeofmedicinetheyarereceiving.Itneedstobesafeandconsistent.”DaisyoverseesateamwhichcreatesteststomonitorthequalityofthemedicinesthatMSDmanufactures.“It’sabigresponsibility,”shenotes.“Sometimesthesetestsmighthavealifetimeof20or30years.SoyouneedtohaveavisiontomakesureMSDcontinuestomakeproductswhichremainsafeandconsistentduringthattimespan.”BecomingapositiverolemodelforothersDaisystrivestobearolemodelforotherwomeninherdepartment,aswellasforhertwoyoungdaughters.“It’swonderfulhowmanystrong,femaleleadersthereareinmydepartment.AndIthinkthatspeaksalottoMSDandtheirinvestmenttowomeninscience,”shenotes.HavingsomanyfemalecolleaguesisabitofanoveltyfortheMississippinative,whosaystherewereveryfewwomeninthesciencedisciplinesasshewasprogressingthroughschool.“Iwastheonlygirlinmyphysicsclassincollege,andonceIwastoldbymyprofessor,‘Youcantakethenotesbecauseyouarethewomanandyoucanbethesecretary.’Therejustweren’talotoffemalerolemodels.So,tome,beingarolemodelissomethingthatdrivesme.”WomencanbeleadersinscienceThatresponsibilitystartsathome.“Mytwogirlsaremybiggestsourcesofmotivationtocometoworkeveryday,”shesays.“It’sreallyimportantformetosetagoodexample,andtoshowmykidsthatwomencanbeinscience.Womencanbeleadersinscience,andtheycanbetechnicallystrong,andtheycansucceed.”Fornow,Daisy’soldestdaughterseemstobefollowinginhermom’sfootsteps.“Myoldestdaughter,whoisfour,isabletosignupfor‘elective’classesatherdaycare.Andshealwayssignsupforthescienceclass,”recallsDaisy.“Theotherdayshecamehome,ranuptomeandsaid,‘Mommy!Lookatme!I’mascientist!’Andshewassohappy.”

Thereisnosecretformulaforasuccessfulcareerindrugdiscovery,butcreativityandthewillingnesstoadapttoarapidly-changingscientificlandscapeplaysabigrole.ForDr.DariaHazuda,VicePresidentofInfectiousDiseasesDiscovery,MSDResearchLaboratories,themostvaluabletraitistenacity,asmostresearchersareconsideredfortunateiftheycreatejustonenewmoleculethatmakesitthroughthecomplexprocessittakestobecomeaproduct.“WhenIjoinedMSDover20yearsago,itwasabigeye-openertoseethemagnitudeoftheeffortthatgoesintodrugdiscoveryanddevelopment,”shenotes.“Therearesomanydifferentdisciplinesrequiredtomovesomethingfromanideaindiscoveryintodevelopment,andthenthereissomucheffortrequiredalongthepathtoapproval.”Daria’sresearchininfectiousdiseasebiologyhasledtothediscoveryanddevelopmentofmultiplenovelmedicinestotreatHIVandHepatitisC.Butdon’tcallhersuccessinthisfieldlucky.“Luckmaybeafactor,sure,butmoreimportantly,youmustalsolearnfromthethingsthatdon’twork,”shesaysasshereflectsonherexperience.“Ifyouareworkingonaprogram,inevitablyalotofthethingsyoutrydon’tsucceed.Insteadofchalkingthoseuptofailure,usethoselessonsandapplythemtothenextiterationofwhatyouaretryingtodo.It’samissedopportunityifyoudon’tlearnfromwhatdoesn’twork.”Daria’sadvice:“Maintainfocusandhaveflexibilitytoadaptyourresearchasscienceanddataunfolds.”AdaptingMSD’sEarlyDiscoveryResearchWithDaria’sextensiveexperienceinthelabs(andmorethan180publicationsfocusedprimarilyonantiviralresearchinthefieldsofHIVandHepatitisC),DariawillnowapplyherexpertiseasChiefScientificOfficerofthenewMSDResearchLaboratoriesCambridgeexploratorysciencecenterinCambridge,Mass.Thecenterwillfocusontheearlieststagesofdiscoveryresearchtobetterunderstandtheunderlyingbiologyofhumandisease.“OurnewCambridgelabspresentauniqueopportunitytotapintothecutting-edgesciencecomingoutofthearea’srichbiomedicalresearch,”shesaysofthenewexploratorysciencecenter.Designedasanentrepreneurialandintimateenvironmentofroughly40scientists,thelabsdonotfocusontacklingasetrosterofdiseases.Here,theemphasiswillbeonexploringthemostpromisingareasofemergingdiseasebiology,includinghost-pathogenbiologyandtheroleofthemicrobiomeindisease,andgainingnewinsightstoinformMSD’songoingdrugdiscovery.”MSD’snewlabsarelocatedinCambridge’sKendallSquareneighborhood,hometooneofthelargestconcentrationsofbiotechandacademiaintheU.S.Inaddition,thespaceissharedwithMSD’sEastCoastBusinessDevelopmentteamtosupportthelab’sfocusonearlybiologyandtechnologycollaborationswithlocalacademicandbiotechgroups.ExploringemergingsciencetoinformdrugdiscoveryForDaria,expandingourearlyresearchcapabilitiesisanexcitingandnecessaryshiftforMSD,andademonstrationofourcommitmenttobeing“researchdriven.”Inalandscapewheremanylargebiopharmaceuticalcompaniesareexitingthediscoveryspace,sheseesthesenewcapabilitiesasanecessaryandvitaladditionforthecompany.“There’sareasonforthe‘and’inResearchandDevelopment,”Darianotes.“Youneedtohaveboth;youneedtohavepeopleexploringnewareasofbiologytouncovernewopportunitiestointerrogateadisease,aswellasthosewhorecognizewhatagoodmoleculelookslikeinordertomakeandsuccessfullydeliveramedicinetothemarket.”Lookingahead,sheadds,“What’smostexcitingtomeishavingtheflexibilitytoexplorecompletelynewareasofdiseasebiology,knowingthatwehaveMSD’sprovendiscoveryanddevelopmentcapabilitiesathandtodriveourdiscoveriesandinventionsforward.”AsdirectorofAnalyticalMethodDevelopmentfortheBiologicsBioProcessDevelopmentgroup,DaisyRichardsonisthefirsttoadmitherroleisonethat’sabitmorebehind-the-scenes.“Myparents,neitherofwhomarescientists,askmeallthetimewhatIdo,”shesayswithalaugh.“Youneverreallythinkaboutdrugqualityandsafety.Peoplealwaysassumethereissomecontroloverit,buttheydon’trealizethecomplexitybehindit.Butthere’sthisincredibleintricacybehindthemoleculesinthevialorsyringeofmedicinetheyarereceiving.Itneedstobesafeandconsistent.”DaisyoverseesateamwhichcreatesteststomonitorthequalityofthemedicinesthatMSDmanufactures.“It’sabigresponsibility,”shenotes.“Sometimesthesetestsmighthavealifetimeof20or30years.SoyouneedtohaveavisiontomakesureMSDcontinuestomakeproductswhichremainsafeandconsistentduringthattimespan.”BecomingapositiverolemodelforothersDaisystrivestobearolemodelforotherwomeninherdepartment,aswellasforhertwoyoungdaughters.“It’swonderfulhowmanystrong,femaleleadersthereareinmydepartment.AndIthinkthatspeaksalottoMSDandtheirinvestmenttowomeninscience,”shenotes.HavingsomanyfemalecolleaguesisabitofanoveltyfortheMississippinative,whosaystherewereveryfewwomeninthesciencedisciplinesasshewasprogressingthroughschool.“Iwastheonlygirlinmyphysicsclassincollege,andonceIwastoldbymyprofessor,‘Youcantakethenotesbecauseyouarethewomanandyoucanbethesecretary.’Therejustweren’talotoffemalerolemodels.So,tome,beingarolemodelissomethingthatdrivesme.”WomencanbeleadersinscienceThatresponsibilitystartsathome.“Mytwogirlsaremybiggestsourcesofmotivationtocometoworkeveryday,”shesays.“It’sreallyimportantformetosetagoodexample,andtoshowmykidsthatwomencanbeinscience.Womencanbeleadersinscience,andtheycanbetechnicallystrong,andtheycansucceed.”Fornow,Daisy’soldestdaughterseemstobefollowinginhermom’sfootsteps.“Myoldestdaughter,whoisfour,isabletosignupfor‘elective’classesatherdaycare.Andshealwayssignsupforthescienceclass,”recallsDaisy.“Theotherdayshecamehome,ranuptomeandsaid,‘Mommy!Lookatme!I’mascientist!’Andshewassohappy.”“OnEarth,youcancontroleveryvariable–otherthangravity.”ThislittlenuggetofintergalacticwisdomaboutwhyconductingmedicalresearchaboardtheISSissoexcitingisfromTaraRuttley,anassociateprogramscientistfortheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS),duringarecenteventatMSD.Assheexplained,it’smainlybecausenoonereallyknowswhatwillhappeninzerogravity—ourusuallawsofphysicsjustdon’tapplyinouterspace.Zerogravityresearchallowsscientistsandresearcherstostudytheunderlyingdynamicsofwhythingsworkthewaytheydo.MSDscientistPaulReichertknowsthisfirsthand.He’sbeenworkingwithNASAandtheCenterfortheAdvancementofScienceinSpace(CASIS)toconducthisownsetofzerogravityexperimentsforMSDaboardtheISSsince1993.Paul,whohascarriedout13experiments,includingtwoonboardtheISS,hasonemainspecialty:growingcrystalsinspace.Improvingourdrugdiscovery,deliveryandmanufacturingprocessesAbouttenyearsago,Pauldiscoveredconditionsthatcrystallizeaproteincalled“alphainterferon.”We’lllethimexplain:“Proteinsgrowninspacebehavedifferentlybecausetheyarenotimpactedbytheforceofgravity,sotheytendtogrowbiggerandpurer,allowingustogainnewinsightsintotheir3-Dstructures,”henotes.“EachtimeI’vesentanexperimenttospace,I’velearnedhowtogrowcrystalsbetterhereonEarth.”PracticalapplicationsonEarthBymakingandstudyingthesecrystals,Paulandhisteamcanfigureoutwaystoimprovethestorageofotherwisestructurally-fragilemedicinesaswellashowtodevisebettermethodsofdrugdelivery.“Currently,alotofmedicinesaredeliveredviaanIVinahospitalsetting,usuallyoverseveralhours,”heexplains.WhatPaulandhisteamaretryingtofigureoutishowtotransformthesemedicinesintosomethingthatcanbegivenasasingle,quickinjectioninadoctor’soffice—somethingsomeonecanreceiveontheirlunchbreak,whereasbeforetheywouldhavetouseawholedayinordertogetthemedicinetheyneedtotake.“Akidinacandyshop”So,whatdoesthefutureholdforthisfrontier-bustingscientistHopefully,moreexperimentsandevenmorebreakthroughs.“MSDallowsme,everydayIcometowork,topushthefrontiersofscience,”henotes.“I’mlikeakidinacandyshophere.”Acandyshopthatjusthappenstosometimesbeinouterspace.

新房入住不到半年漏水返工装修师傅要我付材料人工费用 #标题分割#新房装修完后过了两个多月,2012年12月30号正式入住。入住不到半年,也就是五月上旬,我楼下客厅的天花上出现了水珠。当时就打电话给装修这个房子的装修师傅(也是我的同乡)。过了几天,他带着仪器过来,在管理处工程部的人的监督下给水管打压,水管有漏气的现象,证明了是水管漏水。当装修师傅把他手上的工作做完来为我返工时离发现漏水已经快一个月了,等他查找漏水点到完工用了又快一个月的时间。在这快两个月的时间里我要用水时就要开室内的总阀,不用时就要关掉,给生活带来很大的不便。他首先打开了客厅的一块瓷砖看看是不是水管的接头漏水,打开后发现不是。就开挖隔壁的公卫,发现干区的地下陶粒全都是湿湿的,证实了水是从公卫渗出来的。公卫渗水引起旁边的墙面起泡,柜发霉发黑(后面我会把图片发上去)。完工大概一个多月后他跑来问我要材料费和他工人的工钱,他买的材料有:几个水管的接头,80x80的瓷砖两块,30x30的瓷砖五块及水泥沙,其它的是我装修用剩的。他还说:见我是他老乡才帮做,其他人他不管了(他帮我装修时是纯包工的,所有材料是我自己买)。请各位各行各业的网友们评论,各抒己见,我该付这笔款项吗?新房入住不到半年漏水返工装修师傅要我付材料人工费用 #标题分割#新房装修完后过了两个多月,2012年12月30号正式入住。入住不到半年,也就是五月上旬,我楼下客厅的天花上出现了水珠。当时就打电话给装修这个房子的装修师傅(也是我的同乡)。过了几天,他带着仪器过来,在管理处工程部的人的监督下给水管打压,水管有漏气的现象,证明了是水管漏水。当装修师傅把他手上的工作做完来为我返工时离发现漏水已经快一个月了,等他查找漏水点到完工用了又快一个月的时间。在这快两个月的时间里我要用水时就要开室内的总阀,不用时就要关掉,给生活带来很大的不便。他首先打开了客厅的一块瓷砖看看是不是水管的接头漏水,打开后发现不是。就开挖隔壁的公卫,发现干区的地下陶粒全都是湿湿的,证实了水是从公卫渗出来的。公卫渗水引起旁边的墙面起泡,柜发霉发黑(后面我会把图片发上去)。完工大概一个多月后他跑来问我要材料费和他工人的工钱,他买的材料有:几个水管的接头,80x80的瓷砖两块,30x30的瓷砖五块及水泥沙,其它的是我装修用剩的。他还说:见我是他老乡才帮做,其他人他不管了(他帮我装修时是纯包工的,所有材料是我自己买)。请各位各行各业的网友们评论,各抒己见,我该付这笔款项吗?




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